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3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire.It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC, and after his death, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire.The arid environment which ranges from the northern areas of rain-fed agriculture to the south where irrigation of agriculture is essential if a surplus energy returned on energy invested (EROEI) is to be obtained.
An even earlier Greek usage of the name Mesopotamia is evident from The Anabasis of Alexander, which was written in the late 2nd century AD, but specifically refers to sources from the time of Alexander the Great.
Both rivers are fed by numerous tributaries, and the entire river system drains a vast mountainous region.
Overland routes in Mesopotamia usually follow the Euphrates because the banks of the Tigris are frequently steep and difficult.
Around 150 BC, Mesopotamia was under the control of the Parthian Empire.
Mesopotamia became a battleground between the Romans and Parthians, with western parts of Mesopotamia coming under ephemeral Roman control.