Updating from windows xp sp 1 to sp 2

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This creates alternating used and unused areas of various sizes. When a file is created and there is not an area of contiguous space available for its initial allocation the space must be assigned in fragments.When a file is modified such that it becomes larger it may exceed the space initially allocated to it, another allocation must be assigned elsewhere and the file becomes fragmented.The file system is responsible for organizing files and directories, and keeping track of which areas of the media belong to which file and which are not being used.For example, in Apple DOS of the early 1980s, 256-byte sectors on 140 kilobyte floppy disk used a track/sector map.

For a 512-byte allocation, the average unused space is 256 bytes.It is responsible for arranging storage space; reliability, efficiency, and tuning with regard to the physical storage medium are important design considerations. This layer is concerned with the physical operation of the storage device (e.g. It processes physical blocks being read or written.It handles buffering and memory management and is responsible for the physical placement of blocks in specific locations on the storage medium.In some file systems, filenames are not case sensitive (i.e., the names refer to three separate files).Most modern file systems allow filenames to contain a wide range of characters from the Unicode character set.

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