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Originating as a unit to decipher coded communications in World War II, it was officially formed as the NSA by President Harry S. SCS collection tactics allegedly encompass "close surveillance, burglary, wiretapping, [and] breaking and entering". The NSA, alongside the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), maintains a physical presence in many countries across the globe; the CIA/NSA joint Special Collection Service (a highly classified intelligence team) inserts eavesdropping devices in high value targets (such as Presidential palaces or embassies).In 2013, the NSA had many of its secret surveillance programs revealed to the public by Edward Snowden, a former NSA contractor.According to the leaked documents, the NSA intercepts and stores the communications of over a billion people worldwide, including United States citizens.The origins of the National Security Agency can be traced back to April 28, 1917, three weeks after the U. World War I ended on November 11, 1918, and the army cryptographic section of Military Intelligence (MI-8) moved to New York City on May 20, 1919, where it continued intelligence activities as the Code Compilation Company under the direction of Yardley. The Black Chamber was the United States' first peacetime cryptanalytic organization.Jointly funded by the Army and the State Department, the Cipher Bureau was disguised as a New York City commercial code company; it actually produced and sold such codes for business use.

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Its most notable known success was at the Washington Naval Conference, during which it aided American negotiators considerably by providing them with the decrypted traffic of many of the conference delegations, most notably the Japanese.

Cybersecurity policy expert Susan Landau attributes the NSA's harmonious collaboration with industry and academia in the selection of the AES in 2000 — and the Agency's support for the choice of a strong encryption algorithm designed by Europeans rather than by Americans — to Brian Snow, who was the Technical Director of IAD and represented the NSA as cochairman of the Technical Working Group for the AES competition, and Michael Jacobs, who headed IAD at the time.

According to Neal Koblitz and Alfred Menezes, the period when the NSA was a trusted partner with academia and industry in the development of cryptographic standards started to come to an end when, as part of the change in the NSA in the post-September 11 era, Snow was replaced as Technical Director, Jacobs retired, and IAD could no longer effectively oppose proposed actions by the offensive arm of the NSA.

The documents also revealed the NSA tracks hundreds of millions of people's movements using cellphones metadata. and was part of the war effort under the executive branch without direct Congressional authorization. At that point, the unit consisted of Yardley and two civilian clerks.

Internationally, research has pointed to the NSA's ability to surveil the domestic Internet traffic of foreign countries through "boomerang routing". A code and cipher decryption unit was established as the Cable and Telegraph Section which was also known as the Cipher Bureau. During the course of the war it was relocated in the army's organizational chart several times. It absorbed the navy's Cryptanalysis functions in July 1918. Army cryptographic section of military intelligence, known as MI-8, in 1919, the U. government created the Cipher Bureau, also known as Black Chamber.

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