Rusia dating space
Russia operates a comprehensive and well-organized space force, responsible for space object tracking and identification, space launch, and satellite operations.
Like China, Russia recently reorganized and consolidated its space forces.
This system has been tested at least five times, but analysts disagree whether the launches should be considered ASAT tests, since the PL-19 Nudol missile system is also a missile interceptor.
Other missiles in the Russian arsenal that are not specifically designed to strike satellites can also reach objects in space.
Even the United States continues to use a Russian rocket engine, the RD-180, on one of its main space launch systems, the Atlas V.
In 2011, Russia began work on a third generation of satellites (GLONASS-K) that will greatly improve the accuracy and reliability of the system, and the constellation has now returned to the full network of satellites necessary for global coverage.
Russia’s most recent kinetic ASAT tests have used direct-ascent technologies, representing a departure from the traditional co-orbital systems that dominated the Soviet approach.
Intended for missile defense purposes, the PL-19 Nudol missile is capable of striking a satellite in LEO in much less time than a co-orbital ASAT.
In the early 1980s, the Soviet Union began developing its most powerful anti-satellite weapon yet, known as the Naryad.
Also a co-orbital ASAT, the Naryad was designed to reach altitudes as high as 40,000 km, and could contain multiple individual warheads in a single launch, posing a threat to satellites in GEO.