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Aramaic has the additional conjugation of hi/ʾitpәʿel which serves as a passive and a reflexive of paʿal.

The Aramaic conjugations pәʿal, paʿel, and haphʿel correspond to the Hebrew qal, piʿel, and hiphʿil, but they differ in form.

A number of recently published documents also originated in Elephantine.

Other Aramaic papyri discovered in Egypt come from Hermopolis; their language, more than that of any of the other material, resembles the language prevalent in Syria during that period.

The Hebrew o which parallels the Arabic ā, is also ā in Aramaic – Aramaic שְׁלָם, Hebrew שָׁלוֹם, Arabic ﺳﻼم salām ("peace").

In Aramaic as in Hebrew, the accent may fall either on the penultimate or on the final syllable; the effect in Aramaic however is different from that in Hebrew: a short Proto-Semitic vowel cannot appear in an open non-accented syllable (as opposed to Hebrew where under certain conditions it may be lengthened – cf.

the Arabic ﺳﻼم (salām), Aramaic שְׁלָם, Hebrew שָׁלוֹם.

It is mainly these characteristics which distinguish Aramaic from Hebrew and from the other Semitic languages. (1) Exodus fragment; (2) Bar Kokhba letter; (3) Bet Mashko letter; (3a) Signatures of witnesses to no. 4; (5) Dura-europos fragment; (6, 7) Bet She'arim tomb inscriptions (1–4a from Wadi Murabba'āt, i.e., before 135 Aramaic has no niphʿal.

There is a document from Bukan in Iranian Azerbaijan.

Aramaic papyri as well as a number of ostraca Aramaic papyri were discovered on the isle of Elephantine near Syene (Aswan).

The papyri are comprised of bills, letters, official documents (among them parts of a translation of a Behistun inscription), and parts of the Book of *Aḥikar (see *Elephantine ).

In biblical Aramaic, the pronunciation of the phonemes ב׳ג׳ד׳ כ׳פ׳ת׳ (bgd kpt) are governed practically by the same rules as in Hebrew.

Traces of this double pronunciation can be detected in the modern dialects.

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