Dead sea scroll dating
From that single article this sub-field has matured over nearly six decades to include such tools as reference grammars of Qumran Aramaic by Ursula Schattner-Rieser (2004) and Takamitsu Muraoka (2011), and Edward Cook’s recent (2015).Many articles, doctoral dissertations, and monographs can be found dedicated to the topic of Qumran Aramaic from researchers working in Israel, Europe, North America, and elsewhere.
Some of these scrolls furnished early, original-language witnesses to books about which we had previously known only through later translations – for example, ).
Wise highlighted the potentially important social factor of diglossia, in which one community, or even one person, could access two forms of a language – a “high” dialect and a “low” dialect.
These two dialects – which might include what to later scholars seem to be diachronic differences – could alternate based upon different social situations or text genres, undermining confidence in dating by such “diglossic” traits.
For Aramaic, this phenomenon is nicely illustrated by which form of the relative pronoun is used in a text.
In our oldest Aramaic works, the relative pronoun was זי.